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An Introduction to the Special Issue on the Problem of Corruption and on Feasible Ways of Tackling it


by Professor Nestor Courakis

Guest Editor of "The Art of Crime", issue 7


The issue of corruption was first seen as being at the centre of attention in the US mainly during the 1970s, due to bribery practices which came to light in foreign markets on behalf of notorious American companies. However, this interest was only extended worldwide in the 1990s, and so, in many developed economies of the West, cases of corruption seemed to have a broader scope and a corresponding negative impact on the smooth functioning of the economy. This evolution was helped by the collapse of the regimes of the so-called "real socialism" and the rapid development of economic "globalization", and with all the consequences of these on lifting restrictions on international markets and in a display of extreme forms of competition.


Indeed, there were many multinational companies which tried, through unscrupulous means, to secure jobs or to dominate national contracts within their own country or in other countries. These cases led to a serious additional burden on taxpayers with useless expenditure, e.g. by purchasing equipment or with exorbitant increased public spending on low-quality public works and services. To cope with this situation, there has been drafting and signing of interstate agreements against corruption by leading international and European organizations, such as the OECD (17.12.1997), or the European Community as it was formally known (26.5.1997), the Council of Europe (27.1.1999 and 22.7.2003) and the United Nations (31.10.2003).


Furthermore, control mechanisms were established, for the verification of corruption problems in different countries and to formulate proposals to tackle these problems through evaluation reports. The Groupe d États Contre la Corruption (abbreviated: GRECO) from the Council of Europe should especially be mentioned at this point, as well as the OECD Working Group on Bribery, the Implementary Review Group UNCAC and, more recently, the European Commission which publishes the EU Anti-Corruption Report on a regular basis.



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Anti-corruption efforts in Greece: Between Law in Books and Law in Action

by Nestor Courakis

Professor, University of Nicosia, em. Professor, University of Athens


Due to serious financial and administration problems, there has been an atmosphere of immense crisis in Greecesince 2009. This situation provoked the intervention, among others, of a European Commission Task Force, which agreed with the Greek authorities on a Road Map for technical assistance in the field of Anti-Corruption in October 2012 . As a result, a National Anti-Corruption Action Plan called “Transparency” was prepared by the Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights in January 2013 and a National Anti-Corruption Coordinator together with a Coordination Committee and an Advisory Board were appointed in May and June 2013 (Law Nr. 4152/2013, Paragraph IG –these bodies were abolished in February & March 2015 and substituted by a special Ministry and a Secretary General for combatting corruption: art. 9 ff., Law Nr. 4320/2015).

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National Anti Corruption Coordinator: The Greek answer against the corruption challenge


By Ioannis Tentes

Honorary Prosecutor of the High Court of Justice, National Coordinator against Corruption until March 2015


Corruption constitutes a timeless and generalized phenomenon; an unhealthy phenomenon with multiple and severe consequences. Corruption wears down institutions; it is a danger to democracy, it causes inequalities and it affects human rights. Furthermore, corruption deprives public resources, causes distortion to the competition and prevents economic growth.

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JOURNAL "SOCIAL SCIENCES"

Constanteion - Centre of Criminology & Psychology Researches

Federation of Prison Officers

Professor Nestor Courakis

Ministry of Citizen Protection

I feel safe

Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights

Hellenic Supreme Court of Civil and Penal Law

ex-offenders

Professor Giannis Panousis

Centre for Psychoanalytic Research

Sector of Criminal Sciences - Faculty of Law - National & Kapodistrian University of Athens

Association of greek criminologists - Panteion University

Centre of Social Research - Technological Education Institute of Messolonghi

Sector of Criminology - Panteion University

Sector of Penal and Criminological Sciences - Faculty of Law - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

European Court of Human Rights - Search Portal

Hellenic League for Human Rights

Marangkopoulos Foundation for Human Rights

Faculty of Law - National & Kapodistrian University of Athens

Centre for Penal and Criminological Research

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