Issue 1 - September 2010

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Constantine Gardikas

by Marianthi Theodoropoulou,
Constantine Gardikas was born in the city of Patras in 1896 and died in Athens in 1984. Constantine, was the son of George Gardikas,  Professor of Philosophy at the University of Athens. Thus Constantine  developed into a prolific scientist with a solid classical education.
He studied law in Athens, and he  continued his studies  in Zurich and Geneva specializing in  criminal law  and criminology.  He received his doctorate  degree at the age of 22 and then he started lecturing at the University of Geneva, Switzerland.
In 1919 he returned to Greece and was appointed by the government of Eleftherios Venizelos to the post of Deputy Secretary General of Macedonia, and in 1920 he took over the management of correctional services of Smyrna’s  High Commissioner  ( ), responsible  for the organization of prisons.                        
After the war in Asia Minor  and the surrender of Spyrna to Turkey, Gardikas  returned to Athens, where he undertook the organization of the Police Directorate of the newly created Ministry of the Interior. Later he participated   in the setting up by international scholars of INTERPOL. C. Gardikas played an important role in forensic sciences  within the Police Department. , and he introduced    modern crime  investigation techniques . Conseuqnetly, he assisted in the elimination of obsolete and unsafe methods that were in use at the time.
In 1923, he organized the Criminalistics’ Agency, which later became the Directorate of Criminalistic Services, where he served  for 41 years.
In 1930, he was elected associate  Professor of the newly created chair of Forensics at the University of Athens Law School, and nine years later  he became a full Professor.
He held  that post  until 1968.
The early works of Gardikas had strong historical intonations. We refer to: The Heroics of the Ancient Greeks (Ph.D. thesis, 1918), The Ancient Greek, and Particularly Athenian, Criminal and Homicidal Legislation (1919), The Crime of Adultery (1923), The Crime of Adultery Under the Laws of the Byzantine Empire (1925), The History of Custodial Sentences (1953).
One important contribution of Gardikas to penal sciences  was his  participation in the publication of the first scientifiv journal on penal sciences in Greece, namely: Poinika Chronika ( Penal Chronicles),  Another important contribution was  the of a  three  volume work on  Forensic.  The first edition appeared  in 1934  and it was entitled “Lessons of Forensics”. This volume , consisted of  54 pages only and referred to three main  topics: a) Alcohol and drugs, b) The effects of  age and climate on crime levels, and c) Gambling and crime. This volume wassupplemented later with other topics such as employment and crime, urban and rural crime in Greece, and crimes in Greece according to the place they  are committed. Thus in 1936, Gardikas  eventually published the complete first volume of Criminology,  consisting of  400 pages.
The second volume of Criminology was published in 1938 and included the individual causes of crime, namely the categories of offenders, their personal characteristics and criminal responsibility, as well as the organization of Police in   fighting  crime.
Finally, a third volume  appeared  covering  the correctional treatment of criminals.
It is noteworthy that C. Gardikas continued to develop his main  handbook  By 1968 the first volume on Causes of crime was revised 6 times, , the second volume  on Police had six revisions, and the third volume on corrections four.

The above, together with the fact that he continued his writing and publishing activity up the  age of80 (circa)  in the Journal of Penal Chronicles, suggest  that it is no exaggeration to state  that his death was a significant loss to the academic and scientific community of the penal sciences

For more information, please, see the publication of the Centre for Penal and Criminolgical Research,No 1, Constantinos Gardikas: the father of Criminology in Greece (In Greek).


Emeritus Professor Calliope Spinellis
"Today, there are several well-qualified criminologists in Greece".

Victim offender mediation in family violence cases
The greek experience

by Vasso Artinopoulou,
Ass. Professor of Criminology,  Panteion University (GR) 
The article describes the implementation of victim offender mediation as provided by law in cases of domestic violence in Greece

Improving prison conditions in Greece
... by Nestor E. Courakis
Professor of Criminology & Penology
Faculty of Law, University of Athens (GR)
"This editorial is dedicated to prisons and the Greek penal system since we believe it is the duty of any society to give priority to correctional topics and have as its main objective to improve prison conditions.
How might this improvement be achieved, however?
With this issue we celebrate the English-language edition of the Greek electronic journal “The Art of Crime”. It would be trite to discuss here emotions such as elation and hope that of course are called for at a time like this. The overwhelming emotion, at least to me, is gratitude to the main protagonists of this first criminological electronic magazine in our country, i.e. to Fotios Spyropoulos and Dionysis Chionis ..."

Scientific colloquium on:
“Criminological Aspects of Migration in Greece”

"EPANODOS" (“Return” back to the society)
Rehabilitation Center for ex-prisoners
Presentation, challenges and objectives

Congress of the Greek Society of Criminology:
"Criminology and current challenges"

Combating discrimination and social exclusion:
the “EPAFI” (“CONTACT”) program, where young Law students meet young inmates...

Innocent prisoners and deceived offenders
"punishing somebody who is innocent is a crime"
Have you ever considered what it would be like to be wrongly arrested by the authorities, detained on remand, and after a few months it was proved that you had been wrongly accused and had nothing to do with the case? The issue of wrongful remand of prisoners came to light again in Greece with the case of a young man from the greek island of Mytilene who was arrested and prosecuted for rape and attempted serial rape of 5 women...

Advice on the use of credit cards

"Plastic money" has replaced cash as the dominant method of payment in our everyday transactions.
We are familiar, therefore, with the use of credit cards, but how well do we know to protect ourselves from credit card fraud?
Problems of reoffending of young detainees
Conclusions of the follow-up research of the Center for Penal and Criminological Research (University of Athens)
 by Nestor E. Courakis
       Professor of Criminology
       University of Athens (GR)
This research was characterized as a follow-up because its main purpose was to discover first, what happened to Greek juvenile detainees with whom we had run interviews in the previous stage of the research (1993) ...

“Asking people…”
Interesting questions and even more interesting responses

The events that took place in late 2008, in Greece, in the state correctional facilities, the hunger strike of prisoners and the widespread violent protests concerning prison conditions didn’t leave us unaffected. So we found the opportunity to ask people’s opinion on this important issue. We take the recorder into the street ... and ask YOUR opinion:

"Do you believe there must be changes in the conditions of imprisonment in our country and if so, what should they be?”


The profile of a famous greek criminal through the eye of a camera, the lyrics of a song and his autobiography

A book, a song, and a movie with the same protagonist…
Nikos Koemtzis, a famous Greek criminal who killed three people and stabbed seven more, all because he wanted to dance to a song he had "ordered" from the musicians in a music hall. He transferred the story of his life to a book. Dionysis Savvopoulos (a famous Greek singer-songwriter) read the book and turned it into a song. Pavlos Tassios (a well known Greek director) heard the song and made a film. And now we present a criminologist’s scientific analysis of this artistic triptych.
A case study of a recidivist criminal
This is the interesting story of a recidivist criminal (Elias) who is incarcerated in a Greek prison. We managed to interview him, unattended, in late May 1999 in a special area in the guardhouse yard. The main topic of our conversation was his life story, the life of a young man through the prison bars… 


Constanteion - Centre of Criminology & Psychology Researches

Federation of Prison Officers

Professor Nestor Courakis

Ministry of Citizen Protection

I feel safe

Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights

Hellenic Supreme Court of Civil and Penal Law


Professor Giannis Panousis

Centre for Psychoanalytic Research

Sector of Criminal Sciences - Faculty of Law - National & Kapodistrian University of Athens

Association of greek criminologists - Panteion University

Centre of Social Research - Technological Education Institute of Messolonghi

Sector of Criminology - Panteion University

Sector of Penal and Criminological Sciences - Faculty of Law - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

European Court of Human Rights - Search Portal

Hellenic League for Human Rights

Marangkopoulos Foundation for Human Rights

Faculty of Law - National & Kapodistrian University of Athens

Centre for Penal and Criminological Research

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