Special Issues on Illegal Immigration

Professor Dr. Christina Zarafonitou,

Director of Postgraduate Programme Studies of Criminology, Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences
Guest Editor of "The Art of Crime" Issue n. 6

The first topic of the EUCPN Board Meeting organized by the Hellenic Presidency focused on the “Illegal immigration”. In this context two main speakers have addressed the phenomenology of the phenomenon in Greece and four interventions approached its main aspects. The aforementioned presentations are included in this Special Issue of the Art of crime in order to be communicated to all interested scholars, since these presidential meetings were not “open” to public audience.

The board Meeting has started with the presentation of ProfessorDr. Christina Zarafonitou, Panteion University,on the“Illegal immigration, the perception of ghettos and the fear of crime in the center of Athens”. In this context, the paper focuses, firstly, on the official data concerning the dimension of immigration last 20 years and the special treats of illegal immigration (i.e., nationality of foreigners, area of installation, nationality of traffickers, traffickers and immigrants arrested by the police or the port police etc.). Secondly, the paper focuses on the presentation of the main results of the authors study concerning the ghettos perception among the inhabitants of the Athens city-centre. According these data, and even though the existence of ghettos is not confirmed as a whole, the majority of the respondents were convinced that their area has become a ghetto.In fact, the conditions that characterise an area as transitional towards becoming a ghetto are determined in these areas of the centre of Athens. Consequently, immediate and regulatory state intervention is considered essential so that the centre of Athens will not undertake yet again its role as a transition zone, according to the ecological approach of the Chicago School. In fact, the amelioration of the perceived image of the areas from their inhabitants as it is registered in the follow-up study could be correlated with the increased police presence. Furthermore, this image of amelioration of the quality of life is accompanied by an ameliorated evaluation of police work during the period of the follow-up study (2013). However, this image does not coincide with the decrease of victimisation, the reported levels of which are higher in these areas than in 2011.



Greeting From Prof. Iacovos Farsedakis


Dear Reader,

The Hellenic Presidency of the EUCPN focused, because of their particular importance in both the Greek and European context, on two topics: “Illegal immigration” and “Corruption”. Academics and researchers presented the latest knowledge and research in these fields and representatives from public bodies and organizations summarized the actions that have been taken to tackle the aforementioned phenomena.

The first topic addressed the challenges that the flow of people from third world countries brings to Europe and mainly to its most vulnerable borders. In this context, well managed migration an dintegrating policies examined through the bodies that make a great effort to balance the prevention of the phenomenon while ensuring the protection of human rights, without undermining democracy.


Management of Mixed Migration Flows; A Continuing Operational Challenge for the First Reception Service

Alexandros Arvanitidis,

Head of the Department of Strategic Planning, International & European Cooperation, First Reception Service, Ministry of Public Order & Citizen Protection

First Reception Service has been established with law No 3907/2011 and operates as a Directory of the Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection. Its main purpose is the successful management of mixed migration flows, who enter the territory illegally in a context of respect of human dignity and in compliance with the European and international legislation.



Mixed flows and Human Rights: The experience of the Greek Ombudsman

Vassilis Karydis,

Professor, University of Peloponnese, Deputy Greek Ombudsman for Human Rights

The so- called “mixed flows” of immigration are referring to movements of people without legal documents, including aliens in need of international protection according to international humanitarian law as well as economic or other migrants. I would also like to submit that I prefer to use the term “irregular” instead of “illegal immigration”, because I find it more neutral, with much less negative connotations and finally more precise. This is also the case in recent years for most of the international organizations and NGO which are active in the field, as recently the UN Commissioner Niels Muzniecks pointed out.



The Judicial Fight Against Illegal Immigration in Greece

Philippos Manolaros,

President of the Board of Judges, Court of Appeal of North Aegean

Greece, after the fall of the regimes in Eastern Europe, was the receiver of the first wave of economic migration (with migrant workers mainly from Albania, Romania, Ukraine, Poland). Later, immigrants from Asian countries were added (mainly Afghans, Pakistanis, Palestinians, Iraqis and Iranians) as well as from African countries (mainly Somalis, Egyptians, Sudanese, Tunisians, Algerians, Nigerians and Ghanaians). Greece is characterized as the gate of Europe for illegal immigration.


Illegal Immigration, The Perception Of Ghettos And The Fear Of Crime In The Center Of Athens

Dr. Christina Zarafonitou,

Professor of Criminology, Department of Sociology, School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Panteion University, Athens, Greece

According to the last population census of 2011, the number of the foreigners was 911.929 or the 8.4% of the total population of Greece (10.815.197). This percentage was smaller in 2001 (7.3%) and much smaller in 1991 (1.6%), according to the ELSTAT published data.



International Protection in Greece: The New Greek Asylum Service

Maria Stavropoulou,

Director of the Greek Asylum Service

Establishing a “fair and efficient” asylum system is an integral part of a modern and comprehensive management policy of migration flows. In Europe, as well as in other parts of the world (North America, South Africa, Middle East, etc.), many nationals from other countries arrive intending to stay for a short period of time, having fled their country either because their life, their physical integrity or safety are in danger there, or because they want to improve their financial situation and in general their living conditions. In the first case, the countries they come to have specific obligations to provide them with “international protection” - if they have signed the relevant international treaties-, while in the second case, the countries do not have the obligation to accept them. The obligations for providing international protection derive from international conventions, European Directives, and national rules which in their turn reflect and integrate ancient values regarding the protection of the “foreigner” from danger.



Non-regular Migration into Greece: Reporting and Recording Quantitative and Qualitative Research Data

Dr Joanna Tsiganou,

Director of Research, National Centre for Social Research – (EKKE), Athens, Greece

Migration and border control were within the priority framework of the Hellenic presidency. The Hellenic Presidency aimed to concentrate its efforts at highlighting the positive aspects of a comprehensive migration management and, at the same time, to attempt to tackle the problems arising from illegal migration in the economy, social cohesion and political stability. Instability in the European periphery together with the perseverance of the causes that lead to immigration flows into Europe, increase these flows and place an extra burden on EU member states, in a period of economic crisis. This burden falls mainly on the EU member-states that are at Europes external boarders, as well as on those heavily affected by recession and unemployment, Greece among them.



Constanteion - Centre of Criminology & Psychology Researches

Federation of Prison Officers

Professor Nestor Courakis

Ministry of Citizen Protection

I feel safe

Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights

Hellenic Supreme Court of Civil and Penal Law


Professor Giannis Panousis

Centre for Psychoanalytic Research

Sector of Criminal Sciences - Faculty of Law - National & Kapodistrian University of Athens

Association of greek criminologists - Panteion University

Centre of Social Research - Technological Education Institute of Messolonghi

Sector of Criminology - Panteion University

Sector of Penal and Criminological Sciences - Faculty of Law - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

European Court of Human Rights - Search Portal

Hellenic League for Human Rights

Marangkopoulos Foundation for Human Rights

Faculty of Law - National & Kapodistrian University of Athens

Centre for Penal and Criminological Research

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